Infectious agents detected on non-human primate species from lowlands from Costa Rica and associated environmental factors
Sofía Bernal-ValleMuseo del Jade
Gaby Dolz, Ana E. Jiménez-Rocha, Andrea Chaves, Andrea Urbina, Sofia Bernal-Valle, Alejandra Calderón-Hernández, Mauricio Jiménez, Edgar Ortiz-Malavasi, Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Marco V. Herrero
Costa Rica is a neotropical country with four species of non-human primates (NHP), the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi, AG), the howler monkey (Alouatta palliata, AP), the white face monkey (Cebus imitator, CI) and the squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii, SO). The knowledge of the presence of pathogens of free ranging NHP populations and the relationship with environmental characteristics is essential for conservation strategies. A cross-sectional convenience study was carried out between 2010 and 2012, to determine the presence and frequency of selected infectious agents, describe the host attributes and distribution of positive animals, and their potential explanatory environmental factors. Blood, fur and fecal samples were taken from 79 captured animals (2 AG, 32 AP, 37 CI and 8 SO), and then released safely into their habitat after awakening. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of arboviruses and Plasmodium spp., fur samples for dermatophytes, and fecal samples for Trypanoxyuris, Controrchis, Prosternorchis, Entomoeba, and Giardia. A total of 77% (61/79) of the NHP studied, were positive at least to one of the infectious agents analyzed. The presence of Dengue (serotypes 2, 3 and 4), Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, West Nile Virus, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and Microsporum canis was detected for the first time in free-living monkeys in Central America. The studied animals were found to be infected with one to six infectious agents, but none was sick at the time of sampling. Temperature, habitat fragmentation and sampling site was statistically significant (p<0.05) for NHP positive to arboviruses; precipitation, site, and age for NHP positive to M. canis; temperature, habitat fragmentation and species for NHP positive to gastrointestinal parasites; and habitat fragmentation for NHP with multiple infections. It is recommended to carry out longitudinal studies with selected troops, to determine the role and the affectation of NHP with single or multiple infections.